Access Control List (ACL)

A set of rules that defines what traffic is allowed or denied on a network.

Advanced Persistent Threat (APT)

A long-term, targeted cyberattack designed to gain unauthorized access to a network.

Application Programming Interface (API)

A set of protocols and tools for building software applications and enabling communication between different systems.


The process of verifying the identity of a user, device, or system.


The process of granting or denying access to specific resources or actions based on authenticated identity.


A network of compromised computers, often controlled by a central command-and-control server, used to launch malicious activities.

Bring Your Own Device (BYOD)

A policy that allows employees to use their personal devices for work purposes, which introduces security risks to the network.

Brute Force Attack

An automated method of systematically trying all possible combinations of passwords until the correct one is found.

Certificate Authority (CA)

An entity that issues digital certificates used to verify the authenticity of a website or server.

Cloud Security

Measures and strategies designed to protect data and applications stored in cloud environments.

Command and Control (C2)

The centralized server or infrastructure that controls a botnet or other malware.

Data Encryption

The process of converting data into a form that cannot be easily understood by unauthorized individuals.

Data Loss Prevention (DLP)

Measures and technologies implemented to prevent the unauthorized disclosure or leakage of sensitive data.

Denial of Service (DoS) Attack

An attack that aims to disrupt the availability of a network or system by overwhelming it with traffic or resource consumption.

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack

A DoS attack that originates from multiple sources simultaneously, making it more difficult to mitigate.

Digital Certificate

A digital document that provides authentication and is used to verify the identity of an entity, such as a website or individual.

Endpoint Security

The protection of individual devices, such as computers and smartphones, from security threats.

Ethical Hacking

The practice of deliberately testing the security of a network or system to identify vulnerabilities and improve security.


A network security device that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predefined security rules.


A decoy system designed to attract and trap hackers, allowing security experts to study their techniques and gather information.

Identity and Access Management (IAM)

The framework of policies and technologies used to manage user identities and control access to resources.

Intrusion Detection System (IDS)

A system that monitors network traffic and detects potential security breaches or unauthorized activities.

Intrusion Prevention System (IPS)

A system that actively blocks or prevents unauthorized access or malicious activities based on predefined rules.


Malicious software that records keystrokes on a compromised device, potentially capturing sensitive information such as passwords.


Short for "malicious software," it refers to any software designed to disrupt, damage, or gain unauthorized access to a computer or network.

Network Segmentation

The practice of dividing a network into smaller subnetworks to improve security and control traffic flow

Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP)

A community-driven organization that provides information and tools to help organizations build secure web applications.

Patch Management

The process of acquiring, testing, and deploying updates (patches) to software or systems to address known vulnerabilities.

Penetration Testing

The process of simulating a real-world attack on a system or network to identify vulnerabilities and assess its security posture.


A fraudulent practice in which attackers impersonate trusted entities to trick individuals into revealing sensitive information or performing actions.

Port Scanning

The process of systematically scanning a network to identify open ports on target systems, often used by attackers to discover potential vulnerabilities.

Privilege Escalation

The process of gaining higher levels of access and control within a system or network than originally intended.

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)

A framework of technologies and policies that enable secure communication through the use of public key cryptography.


Malicious software that encrypts files on a victim's computer or network, demanding a ransom for their release.

Security Information and Event Management (SIEM)

A system that collects and analyzes security-related data from various sources to detect and respond to threats.

Social Engineering

Manipulating individuals through psychological tactics to deceive them into revealing sensitive information or performing certain actions.

Software-Defined Networking (SDN)

A network architecture that separates the control plane from the data plane, allowing centralized management and programmability.


The act of falsifying data or identity information to deceive or impersonate legitimate users or systems.


Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) are cryptographic protocols used to secure communications over a network, typically in web applications.

Threat Intelligence

Information about potential or current threats, including tactics, techniques, and indicators of compromise (IOCs), used to enhance security defenses.

Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)

A security measure that requires users to provide two forms of authentication, usually a password and a unique code or token.

Virtual Private Network (VPN)

A secure, encrypted connection that allows users to access a private network over a public network, such as the internet.

Vulnerability Assessment

The process of identifying and evaluating vulnerabilities in a system or network to determine potential risks.

Web Application Firewall (WAF)

A firewall specifically designed to protect web applications by monitoring and filtering HTTP/HTTPS traffic.

Zero-day Vulnerability

A previously unknown security vulnerability that is exploited by attackers before the software vendor becomes aware of it or can release a patch.


An open-source automation tool used for configuration management, application deployment, and task automation.


A configuration management tool that automates the deployment, management, and scaling of infrastructure and applications.

CI/CD (Continuous Integration/Continuous Deployment)

A software development practice that combines continuous integration, automated testing, and continuous deployment to streamline software delivery processes.


A lightweight virtualization method that enables the packaging and running of applications and their dependencies in isolated environments.


A software development methodology that emphasizes collaboration and integration between development and operations teams to deliver software more efficiently.


An open-source platform for automating the deployment and management of applications within containers.

Infrastructure as Code (IaC)

The practice of managing and provisioning infrastructure resources using code and automation tools.


An open-source automation server that enables continuous integration and delivery of software applications.


An open-source container orchestration platform that automates the deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications.

Load Balancer

A device or software that evenly distributes network traffic across multiple servers to improve performance, availability, and scalability.


An architectural approach that structures an application as a collection of small, loosely coupled services that can be independently developed, deployed, and scaled.


The process of observing and collecting data about the performance, availability, and security of a system or network.


An open-source monitoring system that provides alerts and notifications about network and infrastructure issues.


The automated arrangement, coordination, and management of multiple tasks or systems to achieve a desired outcome.


A configuration management tool that automates the deployment and management of infrastructure and software.


A software architectural style for designing networked applications that use HTTP methods (GET, POST, PUT, DELETE) to interact with resources.


The ability of a system or network to handle increasing amounts of work, resources, or users without compromising performance or stability.


The process of writing and executing scripts or programs to automate tasks or processes.

Serverless Computing

A cloud computing model in which the cloud provider manages the infrastructure, allowing developers to focus solely on writing and deploying code.

Software-Defined Infrastructure (SDI)

An approach to managing and provisioning IT infrastructure resources using software and automation techniques.

Software-Defined Networking (SDN)

A network architecture that separates the control plane from the data plane, allowing centralized management and programmability.


An open-source infrastructure provisioning tool that enables the definition and deployment of infrastructure resources using declarative code.

Version Control

The management of changes to software code or configuration files, enabling collaboration, tracking, and reverting to previous versions if needed.


The process of creating virtual instances of computing resources, such as servers, storage, or networks, to consolidate and optimize resource utilization.

Workflow Automation

The automation of manual tasks, processes, or workflows to improve efficiency, accuracy, and productivity.

Zero-touch Provisioning

The automated deployment and configuration of network devices or systems without requiring manual intervention.

Agile Infrastructure

An approach to infrastructure management that focuses on flexibility, adaptability, and quick response to changing business needs.

API Gateway

A server that acts as an entry point for APIs, handling requests, and managing authentication, rate limiting, and other features.

Auto Scaling

A feature of cloud computing platforms that automatically adjusts the number of resources allocated to an application based on demand.

Backup and Recovery

The process of creating copies of data and systems to protect against data loss or system failures, and restoring them when needed.

Change Management

The process of controlling and managing changes to a system or network to minimize disruptions and ensure stability and security.

Configuration Management

The practice of managing and maintaining consistent and standardized configurations across multiple systems or devices.

Disaster Recovery

The planning and processes involved in recovering and restoring IT infrastructure and operations after a major outage or disaster.

Fault Tolerance

The ability of a system or network to continue functioning properly even in the presence of hardware or software failures.

High Availability

The design and implementation of systems or networks that minimize downtime and ensure uninterrupted operation.

Infrastructure Monitoring

The continuous monitoring of infrastructure components, such as servers, networks, and storage, to identify and resolve issues promptly.

IPAM (IP Address Management)

The administration and tracking of IP addresses within a network, including allocation, assignment, and DNS management.

Load Testing

The process of testing a system or application's performance under expected and peak loads to identify potential bottlenecks or limitations.

Log Management

The collection, storage, and analysis of logs generated by systems, applications, or network devices for troubleshooting and security purposes.

Network Automation

The use of software or tools to automate the configuration, management, and monitoring of network devices and services.

Network Functions Virtualization (NFV)

The virtualization of network services traditionally implemented on dedicated hardware, leading to increased agility and flexibility.

Network Segmentation

The practice of dividing a network into smaller subnetworks to improve security, performance, and manageability.

Performance Testing

The process of evaluating the speed, responsiveness, and scalability of a system or application under varying loads or conditions.

Remote Monitoring and Management (RMM)

The ability to monitor and manage systems and networks remotely, often used in managed IT service providers.

Role-Based Access Control (RBAC)

A security model that assigns permissions and access rights to users based on their role or responsibilities.

Service-Level Agreement (SLA)

A contract between a service provider and a customer that defines the expected level of service, including availability, performance, and support.

Software-Defined Storage (SDS)

The virtualization of storage resources, enabling greater flexibility, scalability, and management of storage systems.

Threat Hunting

The proactive search for potential threats and indicators of compromise within a network or system using various tools and techniques.

Traffic Engineering

The optimization of network traffic flow, routing, and resource allocation to ensure efficient and reliable communication.

Unified Threat Management (UTM)

A comprehensive security solution that combines multiple security features, such as firewall, antivirus, and intrusion detection, into a single device.

Virtual Private Cloud (VPC)

A private and isolated virtual network within a public cloud infrastructure, providing enhanced security and control.

VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network)

A logical network created within a physical network, enabling segmentation and isolation of traffic for security and performance purposes.

VPN Concentrator

A device or software that aggregates multiple VPN connections, allowing remote users or sites to connect securely to a central network.

Web Application Security

Measures and practices to protect web applications from security vulnerabilities, such as cross-site scripting (XSS) and SQL injection.

Zero Trust Architecture

A security framework that assumes no implicit trust within a network and requires strict authentication, authorization, and access controls for all resources.